Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):317-326 | 10.5507/bp.2016.039
This paper is an overview of the impact of the human gut microbiota on the metabolism of drugs in the intestinal lumen, on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs and the links between xenobiotics and the composition of the gut microbiota leading to variations in response to medication.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):327-342 | 10.5507/bp.2016.004
Small non-coding RNA molecules (miRs) regulate immune cell function and their role in both innate immunity reactions and, T and B cell activities, underlies susceptibility to autoimmunity. Deregulated miRs influence crucial immunopathological events in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. Up- and down-regulated miRs modify gene expression, immune cell maturation, differentiation and function. This subsequently leads to typical features of SLE such as auto antibody production.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):343-357 | 10.5507/bp.2016.021
The article describes the consequences of altered microRNA expression levels in NSCLC tissues and cells through affecting target genes in various signaling pathways. The authors summarise the relevant literature, outlining how such pathological dysregulation can lead to metastatic spread to brain, lymph nodes and bones. In conclusion, they propose a possible function of microRNAs as a predictor of the site of NSCLC metastasis.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):358-362 | 10.5507/bp.2016.016
It has been reported that monozygotic twinning is increased in association with assisted reproductive techniques. The purpose of this article was to critically review the current state of knowledge in this area.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):363-371 | 10.5507/bp.2016.034
Although Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment, its nephrotoxicity challenges clinical use. This study demonstrated that aqueous extract of cinnamon bark has protective effects against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in a cultured kidney cell line, Vero cells through inhibition of oxidative stress and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as well as induction of HO-1. The findings indicate that regular intake of cinnamon may be one of the most practical and most feasible ways of reducing the risk of CDDP-induced toxicity.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):372-377 | 10.5507/bp.2016.044
Probiotics improve the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):378-384 | 10.5507/bp.2016.017
The authors newly describe the presence of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) in the respiratory tract of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They document 3 cases of acute exacerbations of COPD, where (i) SMG were present in the respiratory tract, (ii) no other bacterial pathogen was detected, (iii) increased CRP levels indicated bacterial infection and (iv) patients recovered during empirical antibiotic treatment. The data indicate that SMG may act as an opportunist respiratory pathogens capable of exacerbating COPD.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):385-392 | 10.5507/bp.2016.007
Noninvasive diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction remains difficult. The authors analysed the longitudinal, circumferential and radial deformation of myocardium using two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography to find a new significant and independent predictive factor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Strain rate during atrial contraction (SR A) circumferential in combination with other parameters may be used in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):393-398 | 10.5507/bp.2016.035
The study focused on the incidence of radial artery injuries after first and repeated transradial coronary catheterizations. The results show a low occurrence of injuries and no differences between the first and follow-up procedure. One of the reasons for the results seems to be the use of short radial sheats for arterial access.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):399-406 | 10.5507/bp.2016.010
The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) exacerbates organ dysfunctions and increases postoperative mortality. This animal study confirms the hypothesis that serious pre‑operative plasma‑thrombo-leukocyte aphaeresis significantly limits the major symptoms of SIRS and organ dysfunctions after 3h CPB without adverse effects on the postoperative course.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):407-411 | 10.5507/bp.2016.026
The authors describe their experience with conversion of stable patients after kidney transplantation from cyclosporine to tacrolimus prolonged-release (ADVAGRAF®). While there are many references to conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus immediate-release, there is only one clinical study describing similar conversion to tacrolimus prolonged-release and so far no reference to such conversion in routine clinical practice. The data show that this conversion is safe, well tolerated and results in substantial decrease in side-effects linked to cyclosporine treatment and more importantly to better kidney graft function.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):412-416 | 10.5507/bp.2016.043
Conventional linear accelerator stereotactic radiotherapy is safe and feasible for the treatment of brain metastases.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):417-422 | 10.5507/bp.2016.027
The authors describe one of very few published studies that assess the expression of the MYB gene using FISH in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands and determine its prognostic role. Minor salivary gland tumours are likely to be MYB positive. The authors show a difference in the survival and disease free interval in patients with ACC, depending on their MYB status. MYB negative patients tend to have a better prognosis.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):423-428 | 10.5507/bp.2016.015
This is a comparison of postoperative distress related to selected surgical techniques: conventional open surgery (OS) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) used in the treatment of base of tongue and supraglottis malignant tumours. There were statistically significant deviations in two main areas: blood loss and somatic problems. The study confirms that there are significant differences between the use of TORS and conventional open surgery for the removal of malignant carcinomas located in the tongue base or supraglottis.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):429-434 | 10.5507/bp.2016.028
Ureterocele in duplex kidney leads to more serious damage of upper pole kidney parenchyma than ectopic ureter. Upper pole function 3% or less in the case of ureterocele and 2% or less in the case of ectopic ureter indicates irreversible parenchymal damage. Ultrasound examination of duplex kidney is not able to predict the severity of histological lesions of upper pole parenchyma.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):435-441 | 10.5507/bp.2016.008
Hypofractionation appears to be the optimal approach for prostate cancer radiotherapy. A few free days inserted into the schedule may reduce early toxicity.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):442-447 | 10.5507/bp.2016.022
This paper describes the results of an analysis of the molecular-genetics of the COL1A1 gene in Czech patients diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta type I-IV. Possible effects of DNA changes on phenotype are discussed.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):448-455 | 10.5507/bp.2016.014
This study is the first to collate multicenter data on the epidemiology of HAP in the Central European Region. The patient cohort was divided into early- and late-onset HAP subgroups. A subgroup of patients with VAP was assessed separately. The study focuses on relationships between 30-day patient mortality and type of HAP, etiologic agent and type of antibiotic used for initial empirical therapy. The study reports on the epidemiology in the above region with respect to the incidence of etiologic agents causing HAP and provides an overview of treatment efficacy and adequacy of antibiotic therapy.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):456-460 | 10.5507/bp.2016.018
The authors present an extremely rare case of malignant melanoma arising within a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in a child who presented at an advanced stage with bone marrow involvement despite regular follow-up. They describe the well-documented diagnostic procedure, treatment and discuss current treatment options for this condition.