Biomedical papers, 2016 (vol. 160), issue 3

Review articles

Human gut microbiota plays a role in the metabolism of drugs

Lenka Jourova, Pavel Anzenbacher, Eva Anzenbacherova

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):317-326 | 10.5507/bp.2016.039

This paper is an overview of the impact of the human gut microbiota on the metabolism of drugs in the intestinal lumen, on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs and the links between xenobiotics and the composition of the gut microbiota leading to variations in response to medication.

MicroRNAs in the key events of systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis

Marketa Husakova

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):327-342 | 10.5507/bp.2016.004

Small non-coding RNA molecules (miRs) regulate immune cell function and their role in both innate immunity reactions and, T and B cell activities, underlies susceptibility to autoimmunity. Deregulated miRs influence crucial immunopathological events in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. Up- and down-regulated miRs modify gene expression, immune cell maturation, differentiation and function. This subsequently leads to typical features of SLE such as auto antibody production.

The role of microRNA in metastatic processes of non-small cell lung carcinoma

Zuzana Pastorkova, Jozef Skarda, Jozef Andel

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):343-357 | 10.5507/bp.2016.021

The article describes the consequences of altered microRNA expression levels in NSCLC tissues and cells through affecting target genes in various signaling pathways. The authors summarise the relevant literature, outlining how such pathological dysregulation can lead to metastatic spread to brain, lymph nodes and bones. In conclusion, they propose a possible function of microRNAs as a predictor of the site of NSCLC metastasis.

High incidence of monozygotic twinning in infertility treatment

Ales Sobek Jr., Martin Prochazka, Eva Klaskova, Marek Lubusky, Radovan Pilka

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):358-362 | 10.5507/bp.2016.016

It has been reported that monozygotic twinning is increased in association with assisted reproductive techniques. The purpose of this article was to critically review the current state of knowledge in this area.

Original contributions

The aqueous extract of cinnamon bark ameliorated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in vero cells without compromising the anticancer efficiency of cisplatin

Ayman I. ElKady, Wafaa S. Ramadan

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):363-371 | 10.5507/bp.2016.034

Although Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment, its nephrotoxicity challenges clinical use. This study demonstrated that aqueous extract of cinnamon bark has protective effects against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in a cultured kidney cell line, Vero cells through inhibition of oxidative stress and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as well as induction of HO-1. The findings indicate that regular intake of cinnamon may be one of the most practical and most feasible ways of reducing the risk of CDDP-induced toxicity.

The long-term effects of probiotics in the therapy of ulcerative colitis: A clinical study

Vincenzo Davide Palumbo, Marcello Romeo, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesco Carini, Provvidenza Damiani, Giuseppe Damiano, Salvatore Buscemi, Attilio Ignazio Lo Monte, Alice Gerges-Geagea, Abdo Jurjus, Giovanni Tomasello

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):372-377 | 10.5507/bp.2016.044

Probiotics improve the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel diseases.

The Streptococcus milleri group in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Lucie Navratilova, Jan Bardon, Radko Novotny, Jaromir Zatloukal, Petr Jakubec, Vitezslav Kolek, Martin Zapalka, Frantisek Kopriva, Petra Prochazkova, Vladislav Raclavsky

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):378-384 | 10.5507/bp.2016.017

The authors newly describe the presence of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) in the respiratory tract of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They document 3 cases of acute exacerbations of COPD, where (i) SMG were present in the respiratory tract, (ii) no other bacterial pathogen was detected, (iii) increased CRP levels indicated bacterial infection and (iv) patients recovered during empirical antibiotic treatment. The data indicate that SMG may act as an opportunist respiratory pathogens capable of exacerbating COPD.

Longitudinal, circumferential and radial systolic left ventricular function in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction

Zdenka Gregorova, Jaroslav Meluzin, Radka Stepanova, Jan Sitar, Helena Podrouzkova, Lenka Spinarova

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):385-392 | 10.5507/bp.2016.007

Noninvasive diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction remains difficult. The authors analysed the longitudinal, circumferential and radial deformation of myocardium using two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography to find a new significant and independent predictive factor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Strain rate during atrial contraction (SR A) circumferential in combination with other parameters may be used in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Short sheath benefit in radial artery injury after PCI - optical coherence tomography serial study

Tereza Novakova, Jan Kanovsky, Roman Miklik, Otakar Bocek, Martin Poloczek, Petr Jerabek, Lenka Privarova, Tomas Ondrus, Jiri Jarkovsky, Klara Benesova, Jindrich Spinar, Petr Kala

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):393-398 | 10.5507/bp.2016.035

The study focused on the incidence of radial artery injuries after first and repeated transradial coronary catheterizations. The results show a low occurrence of injuries and no differences between the first and follow-up procedure. One of the reasons for the results seems to be the use of short radial sheats for arterial access.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is reduced by preoperative plasma-thrombo-leukocyte aphaeresis in a pig model of cardiopulmonary bypass

Robert Wagner, Pavel Piler, Borivoj Uchytil, Roman Halouzka, Hana Kovaru, Marie Bobkova, Petr Nemec

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):399-406 | 10.5507/bp.2016.010

The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) exacerbates organ dysfunctions and increases postoperative mortality. This animal study confirms the hypothesis that serious pre‑operative plasma‑thrombo-leukocyte aphaeresis significantly limits the major symptoms of SIRS and organ dysfunctions after 3h CPB without adverse effects on the postoperative course.

Clinical experience of conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus prolonged-release in stabilized kidney transplant patients

Karel Krejci, Josef Zadrazil, Eva Lackova, Zuzana Zilinska, Robert Roland, Ivana Dedinska

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):407-411 | 10.5507/bp.2016.026

The authors describe their experience with conversion of stable patients after kidney transplantation from cyclosporine to tacrolimus prolonged-release (ADVAGRAF®). While there are many references to conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus immediate-release, there is only one clinical study describing similar conversion to tacrolimus prolonged-release and so far no reference to such conversion in routine clinical practice. The data show that this conversion is safe, well tolerated and results in substantial decrease in side-effects linked to cyclosporine treatment and more importantly to better kidney graft function.

Radiotherapy management of brain metastases using conventional linear accelerator

Marcel Matzenauer, David Vrana, Zuzana Vlachova, Karel Cwiertka, Ondrej Kalita, Bohuslav Melichar

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):412-416 | 10.5507/bp.2016.043

Conventional linear accelerator stereotactic radiotherapy is safe and feasible for the treatment of brain metastases.

The incidence of MYB gene breaks in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands and its prognostic significance

Martin Broz, Petr Steiner, Richard Salzman, Lukas Hauer, Ivo Starek

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):417-422 | 10.5507/bp.2016.027

The authors describe one of very few published studies that assess the expression of the MYB gene using FISH in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands and determine its prognostic role. Minor salivary gland tumours are likely to be MYB positive. The authors show a difference in the survival and disease free interval in patients with ACC, depending on their MYB status. MYB negative patients tend to have a better prognosis.

Short-term postoperative distress associated with open vs. transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in patients with T1-T2 carcinomas of the tongue base and supraglottis

Karel Slama, David Slouka, Jaroslav Slipka, Slavomil Fischer

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):423-428 | 10.5507/bp.2016.015

This is a comparison of postoperative distress related to selected surgical techniques: conventional open surgery (OS) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) used in the treatment of base of tongue and supraglottis malignant tumours. There were statistically significant deviations in two main areas: blood loss and somatic problems. The study confirms that there are significant differences between the use of TORS and conventional open surgery for the removal of malignant carcinomas located in the tongue base or supraglottis.

Can renal ultrasonography and DMSA scintigraphy be used for the prediction of irreversible histological lesions of the upper pole in duplex system with ureteroceles or ectopic ureters?

Oldrich Smakal, Jan Sarapatka, Igor Hartmann, Ondrej Vencalek, Hana Flogelova, Pavel Koranda, Vladimir Student

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):429-434 | 10.5507/bp.2016.028

Ureterocele in duplex kidney leads to more serious damage of upper pole kidney parenchyma than ectopic ureter. Upper pole function 3% or less in the case of ureterocele and 2% or less in the case of ectopic ureter indicates irreversible parenchymal damage. Ultrasound examination of duplex kidney is not able to predict the severity of histological lesions of upper pole parenchyma.

Early toxicity of hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

Pavel Krupa, Hana Ticha, Tomas Kazda, Radana Dymackova, Jana Zitterbartova, Anna Odlozilikova, Libor Kominek, Lukas Bobek, Ales Kudlacek, Pavel Slampa

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):435-441 | 10.5507/bp.2016.008

Hypofractionation appears to be the optimal approach for prostate cancer radiotherapy. A few free days inserted into the schedule may reduce early toxicity.

Eight mutations including 5 novel ones in the COL1A1 gene in Czech patients with osteogenesis imperfecta

Lucie Hruskova, Igor Fijalkowski, Wim Van Hul, Ivo Marik, Geert Mortier, Pavel Martasek, Ivan Mazura

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):442-447 | 10.5507/bp.2016.022

This paper describes the results of an analysis of the molecular-genetics of the COL1A1 gene in Czech patients diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta type I-IV. Possible effects of DNA changes on phenotype are discussed.

Epidemiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia: Results of a Central European multicenter, prospective, observational study compared with data from the European region

Tomas Herkel, Radovan Uvizl, Lenka Doubravska, Milan Adamus, Tomas Gabrhelik, Miroslava Htoutou Sedlakova, Milan Kolar, Vojtech Hanulik, Vendula Pudova, Katerina Langova, Roman Zazula, Tomas Rezac, Michal Moravec, Pavel Cermak, Pavel Sevcik, Jan Stasek, Jan Malaska, Alena Sevcikova, Marketa Hanslianova, Zdenek Turek, Vladimir Cerny, Pavla Paterova

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):448-455 | 10.5507/bp.2016.014

This study is the first to collate multicenter data on the epidemiology of HAP in the Central European Region. The patient cohort was divided into early- and late-onset HAP subgroups. A subgroup of patients with VAP was assessed separately. The study focuses on relationships between 30-day patient mortality and type of HAP, etiologic agent and type of antibiotic used for initial empirical therapy. The study reports on the epidemiology in the above region with respect to the incidence of etiologic agents causing HAP and provides an overview of treatment efficacy and adequacy of antibiotic therapy.

Case reports

Bone marrow metastasis of malignant melanoma in childhood arising within a congenital melanocytic nevus

Jana Volejnikova, Viera Bajciova, Lucie Sulovska, Marie Geierova, Eva Buriankova, Marie Jarosova, Marian Hajduch, Jaroslav Sterba, Vladimir Mihal

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):456-460 | 10.5507/bp.2016.018

The authors present an extremely rare case of malignant melanoma arising within a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in a child who presented at an advanced stage with bone marrow involvement despite regular follow-up. They describe the well-documented diagnostic procedure, treatment and discuss current treatment options for this condition.