Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(3):399-406 | 10.5507/bp.2016.010
Objectives: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) exacerbates organ dysfunction and increases postoperative mortality. The aim of this study was to reduce SIRS after CPB in a pig model by profoundly decreasing all blood defence factors (complement, coagulation and fibrinolytic and contact systems, leukocytes and thrombocytes) using pre‑operative aphaeresis.
Methods: Thirty-three pigs underwent 3 h of hypothermic CPB with 2 h of cardioplegic arrest, followed by 4 days of observation. One half of the sample underwent prebypass plasma-thrombo-leukocyte aphaeresis with the adjuvant leukofiltration.
Results: In the control group, there were classical signs of SIRS (tachycardia, tachypnea and leukocytosis) postoperatively. There was also myocardial ischaemia and the need for inotropic support in 90% of the control animals. Neutrophils showed an increase in superoxide anion production (P < 0.001), and surface neutral protease activity (P < 0.001) and blood endotoxin levels increased (P < 0.01) compared with preoperative levels. In contrast, in the aphaeretic group, there were no classical signs of SIRS; no myocardial ischaemia; minimum neutrophil production of the superoxide anion and protease activity were recorded (P < 0.001); and endotoxin levels were also decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the controls. In the control group, the haemodynamic problems associated with disconnecting from CPB correlated with the histologic findings in the myocardium (leukocyte endothelial adhesion and leukodiapedesis).
Conclusions: Pre‑operative plasma‑thrombo-leukocyte aphaeresis significantly reduces the major symptoms of SIRS and organ dysfunction after 3 h of CPB without adverse effects, such as bleeding and infection, during the postoperative course.
Received: November 3, 2015; Accepted: March 1, 2016; Prepublished online: April 1, 2016; Published: September 20, 2016