Biomedical papers, 2017 (vol. 161), issue 3

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2017, 161(3):223-233 | 10.5507/bp.2017.028

Pulse wave analysis and diabetes mellitus. A systematic review

Jaromira Gajdova, David Karasek, Dominika Goldmannova, Ondrej Krystynik, Jan Schovanek, Helena Vaverkova, Josef Zadrazil
Department of Internal Medicine III - Nephrology, Rheumatology and Endocrinology, University Hospital Olomouc and Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Czech Republic

Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the primary cause of death in diabetic patients and one of the explanations may be increased arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness assessment using pulse wave analysis, is a predictive factor of CV events. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of relations between diabetes mellitus and pulse wave analysis. A MEDLINE search was performed to retrieve both original and review articles addressing the relations and influences on arterial stiffness in diabetics. Pulse wave analysis is considered as a gold standard in CV risk evaluation for patients at risk, especially diabetics. Arterial stiffness assessment may be helpful for choosing more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, particularly in younger patients to reduce the incidence of CV disease in these patients.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, arterial stiffness, pulse wave analysis

Received: November 21, 2016; Accepted: May 25, 2017; Prepublished online: June 5, 2017; Published: September 26, 2017


References

  1. Fowler MJ. Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes. Clin Diabetes 2008;26(2):77-82. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Stehouwer CDA, Henry RMA, Ferreira I. Lane HA, Smith JC, Davies JS. Noninvasive assessment of preclinical atherosclerosis. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2006;2(1):19-30. Diabetologia 2008;51(4):527-39. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0918-3 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Schram MT, Henry RMA, van Dijk RAJM, Kostense PJ, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Bouter LM, Westerhof N, Stehouwer CDA. Increased central artery stiffness in impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. Hypertension 2004;43(2):176-81. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000111829.46090.92 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Mohan V. Macrovascular component of diabetes atherosclerosis and insulin (CUPS-18). J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55 Suppl:13-18. Go to PubMed...
  5. Stehouwer CDA, Henry RMA, Ferreira I. Arterial stiffness in diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: a pathway to cardiovascular disease. Diabetologia 2008;51(4):527-39. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0918-3 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. Boutouyrie P, Fliser D, Goldsmith D, Covic A, Wiecek A, Ortiz A, Martinez-Castelao A, Lindholm B, Massy ZA, Suleymanlar G, Sicari R, Gargani L, Parati G, Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, London GM. Assessment of arterial stiffness for clinical and epidemiological studies: methodological considerations for validation and entry into the European Renal and Cardiovascular Medicine registry. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014;29(2):232-9. doi:10.1093/ndt/gft309 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  7. O'Rourke MF, Nichols WW. Aortic diameter, aortic stiffness, and wave reflection increase with age and isolated systolic hypertension. Hypertension 2005;45(4):652-8. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000153793.84859.b8 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  8. Liao J, Farmer J. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Current atherosclerosis reports 2014;16(2):387. doi:10.1007/s11883-013-0387-8 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. London GM, Cohn JN. Prognostic application of arterial stiffness: task forces. Am J Hypertens 2002;15(8):754-8. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Lane HA, Smith JC, Davies JS. Noninvasive assessment of preclinical atherosclerosis. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2006;2(1):19-30. doi:10.2147/vhrm.2006.2.1.19 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  11. O'Rourke MF, Kelly RP. Wave reflection in the systemic circulation and its implications in ventricular function. J Hypertens 1993;11(4):327-37. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. O'Rourke MF, Mancia G. Arterial stiffness. J Hypertens 1999;17(1):1-4. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. Lehmann ED, Riley WA, Clarkson P, Gosling RG. Non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Lancet (London, England) 1997;350 Suppl:SI14-9. Go to PubMed...
  14. Pauca AL, Wallenhaupt SL, Kon ND, Tucker WY. Does radial artery pressure accurately reflect aortic pressure? Chest 1992;102(4):1193-8. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  15. Greenwald SE. Ageing of the conduit arteries. J Pathol 2007;211(2):157-72. doi:10.1002/path.2101 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  16. Widimsky jr, J. Widimsky J. Hypertenze 4. Rozšířené a přepracované vydání Praha: Triton; 2014
  17. Vlachopoulos C, Aznaouridis K, Stefanadis C. Prediction of Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality With Arterial Stiffness. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55(13):1318-27. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.10.061 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. Taniwaki H, Kawagishi T, Emoto M, Shoji T, Kanda H, Maekawa K, Nishizawa Y, Morri H. Correlation between the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and aortic pulse-wave velocity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Vessel wall properties in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22(0149-5992(Print)):1851-7.
  19. Pini R, Cavallini MC, Palmieri V, Marchionni N, Di Bari M, Devereux RB, Masotti G, Roman MJ. Central but not brachial blood pressure predicts cardiovascular events in an unselected geriatric population: the ICARe Dicomano Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51(25):2432-9. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.03.031 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  20. Rahman S, Ismail AA-S, Ismail SB, Naing NN, Rahman ARA. Early manifestation of macrovasculopathy in newly diagnosed never treated type II diabetic patients with no traditional CVD risk factors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008;80(2):253-8. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2007.12.010 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  21. Cruickshank K, Riste L, Anderson SG, Wright JS, Dunn G, Gosling RG. Aortic pulse-wave velocity and its relationship to mortality in diabetes and glucose intolerance: an integrated index of vascular function? Circulation 2002;106(16):2085-90. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  22. Schram MT, Kostense PJ, Van Dijk RA, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Bouter LM, Heine RJ, Stehouwer CD. Diabetes, pulse pressure and cardiovascular mortality: the Hoorn Study. J Hypertens 2002;20(9):1743-51. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  23. SphygmoCor and Diabetes. [manual for device Sphygmocor] Available from: http://www.atcormedical.com.
  24. Lacy PS, O'Brien DG, Stanley AG, Dewar MM, Swales PPR, Williams B. Increased pulse wave velocity is not associated with elevated augmentation index in patients with diabetes. J Hypertens 2004;22(10):1937-44. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  25. Engelen L, Ferreira I, Stehouwer CD, Boutouyrie P, Laurent S. Reference intervals for common carotid intima-media thickness measured with echotracking: relation with risk factors. Eur Heart J 2013;34(30):2368-80. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs380 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  26. Franklin SS. Beyond blood pressure: Arterial stiffness as a new biomarker of cardiovascular disease. J Am Soc Hypertens 2008;2(3):140-51. doi:10.1016/j.jash.2007.09.002 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  27. Filipovsky J, Widimsky J Jr., Spinar J. Summary of 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: Prepared by the Czech Society of Hypertension/Czech Society of Cardiology. Cor et Vasa 2014;56(6):e494-e518. doi:10.1016/j.crvasa.2014.07.007 Go to original source...
  28. Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, Albus C, Brotons C, Catapano AL, Cooney MT, Corrà U, Cosyns B, Deaton C, Graham I, Hall MS, Hobbs FD, Løchen ML, Löllgen H, Marques-Vidal P, Perk J, Prescott E, Redon J, Richter DJ, Sattar N, Smulders Y, Tiberi M, van der Worp HB, van Dis I, Verschuren WM; Authors/Task Force Members. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts)Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J. 2016;37(29):2315-81 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw106. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  29. Safar ME, Levy BI, Struijker-Boudier H. Current perspectives on arterial stiffness and pulse pressure in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Circulation 2003;107(22):2864-9. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000069826.36125.B4 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. London GM, Pannier B. Arterial functions: how to interpret the complex physiology. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010;25(12):3815-23. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfq614 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  31. Yki-Jarvinen H, Westerbacka J. Insulin resistance, arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Adv Cardiol 2007;44:252-60. doi:10.1159/000096746 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  32. Salomaa V, Riley W, Kark JD, Nardo C, Folsom AR. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations are associated with arterial stiffness indexes. The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 1995;91(5):1432-43.
  33. Sutton-Tyrrell K, Newman A, Simonsick EM, Havlik R, Pahor M, Lakatta E, Spurgeon H, Vaitkevicius P. Aortic stiffness is associated with visceral adiposity in older adults enrolled in the study of health, aging, and body composition. Hypertension 2001;38(3):429-33. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  34. van Dijk RAJM, Bakker SJL, Scheffer PG, Heine RJ, Stehouwer CDA. Associations of metabolic variables with arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes mellitus: focus on insulin sensitivity and postprandial triglyceridaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33(4):307-15. Go to PubMed...
  35. Aronson D. Cross-linking of glycated collagen in the pathogenesis of arterial and myocardial stiffening of aging and diabetes. J Hypertens 2003;21(1):3-12. doi:10.1097/01.hjh.0000042892.24999.92 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  36. Schram MT, Schalkwijk CG, Bootsma AH, Fuller JH, Chaturvedi N, Stehouwer CDA. Advanced glycation end products are associated with pulse pressure in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Hypertension 2005;46(1):232-7. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000164574.60279.ba Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  37. Kass DA, Shapiro EP, Kawaguchi M, Capriotti AR, Scuteri A, DeGroof RC, Lakatta EG. Improved arterial compliance by a novel advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker. Circulation 2001;104(13):1464-70. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  38. Creager MA, Luscher TF, Cosentino F, Beckman JA. Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: Part I. Circulation 2003;108(12):1527-32. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000091257.27563.32 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  39. Ferreira I, Boreham CA, Twisk JWR, Gallagher AM, Young IS, Murray LJ, Stehouwer CDA. Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors and arterial stiffness in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. J Hypertens 2007;25(5):1009-20. doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e3280a94e76 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  40. McEniery CM, Qasem A, Schmitt M, Avolio AP, Cockcroft JR, Wilkinson IB. Endothelin-1 regulates arterial pulse wave velocity in vivo. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42(11):1975-81. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  41. Hingorani AD, Cross, J, Kharbanda RK, Mullen MJ, Bhagat K, Taylor M, Donald AE, Palacios M, Griffin GE, Deanfield JE, MacAllister RJ, Vallance P. Acute systemic inflammation impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation in humans. Circulation 2000;102(9):994-9. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  42. Szmitko PE, Wang C-H, Weisel RD, de Almeida JR, Anderson TJ, Verma S. New markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation: Part I. Circulation 2003;108(16):1917-23. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000089190.95415.9F Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  43. Yasmin, McEniery CM, Wallace S, Mackenzie IS, Cockcroft JR, Wilkinson IB. C-reactive protein is associated with arterial stiffness in apparently healthy individuals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24(5):969-74. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.zhq0504.0173 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  44. Ridker PM, Rifai N, Rose L, Buring JE, Cook NR. Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2002;347(20):1557-65. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021993 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  45. Gomez-Marcos MA, Recio-Rodriguez JI, Patino-Alonso MC, Agudo-Conde C, Gomez-Sanchez L, Rodriguez-Sanchez M, Martinez-Vizcaino V, Garcia-Ortiz L. Relationships between high-sensitive C-reactive protein and markers of arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients. Differences by sex. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2012;12(1):37. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-12-37 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  46. Lessiani G, Santilli F, Boccatonda A, Iodice P, Liani R, Tripaldi R, Saggini R, Davi G. Arterial stiffness and sedentary lifestyle: Role of oxidative stress. Vascul Pharmacol 2016;79:1-5. doi:10.1016/j.vph.2015.05.017 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  47. Cardoso CRL, Moran CBM, Marinho FS, Ferreira MT, Salles GF. Increased aortic stiffness predicts future development and progression of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study. Diabetologia 2015;58(9):2161-8. doi:10.1007/s00125-015-3658-9 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  48. Theilade S, Lajer M, Persson F, Joergensen C, Rossing P. Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular, renal, retinal, and autonomic disease in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36(3):715-21. doi:10.2337/dc12-0850 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  49. Yokoyama H, Yokota Y, Tada J, Kanno S. Diabetic neuropathy is closely associated with arterial stiffening and thickness in Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2007;24(12):1329-35. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02278.x Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  50. Sergienko VA. Insulin resistance and arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2014;114(4):11-5. Go to PubMed...
  51. Ogawa O, Hayashi C, Nakaniwa T, Tanaka Y, Kawamori R. Arterial stiffness is associated with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;68(2):162-6. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2004.09.008 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  52. Ogawa O, Hiraoka K, Watanabe T, Kinoshita J, Kawasumi M, Yoshi H, Kawamori R. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with pulse wave velocity, not with the augmentation index of pulse waveform. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2008;7:11. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-11 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  53. Mitchell GF. Increased aortic stiffness: an unfavorable cardiorenal connection. Hypertension 2004;43(2):151-3. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000114581.77705.29 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  54. Garnier A, Briet M. Arterial Stiffness and Chronic Kidney Disease. Pulse 2016:229-41. doi:10.1159/000443616 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  55. Briet M, Bozec E, Laurent S, Fassot C, London GM,Jacquot C, Froissart M, Houillier P, Boutouyrie P. Arterial stiffness and enlargement in mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2006;69(2):350-7. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5000047 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  56. London GM, Blacher J, Pannier B, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, Safar ME. Arterial wave reflections and survival in end-stage renal failure. Hypertension. 2001;38(3):434-8 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  57. Vlachopoulos C, Aznaouridis K, Stefanadis C. Clinical appraisal of arterial stiffness: the Argonauts in front of the Golden Fleece. Heart 2006;92(11):1544-50. doi:10.1136/hrt.2005.067025 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  58. Kullo IJ, Malik AR. Arterial ultrasonography and tonometry as adjuncts to cardiovascular risk stratification. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49(13):1413-26. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.11.039 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  59. Mansia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, Cifkova R, Fagard R, Germano G, Grassi G, Heagerty AM, Kjeldsen SE, Laurent S, Narkiewicz K, Ruilope L, Rynkiewicz A, Schmieder RE, Struijker Boudier HA, Zanchetti A. 2007 ESH-ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Blood Press 2007;16(3):135-232. doi:10.1080/08037050701461084 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  60. Mitchell GF. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection: biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Artery Res 2009;3(2):56-64. doi:10.1016/j.artres.2009.02.002.Arterial Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  61. Guize L, Thomas F, Pannier B, Bean K, Jego B, Benetos A. All-cause mortality associated with specific combinations of the metabolic syndrome according to recent definitions. Diabetes Care 2007;30(9):2381-7. doi:10.2337/dc07-0186 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  62. Bjorntorp P. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution. Diabetes Care 1991;14(12):1132-43. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  63. Longo R, Ricci C, Masutti F, Vidimari R, Croce LS, Bercich L, Tiribelli C, Dalla Palma L. Fatty infiltration of the liver. Quantification by 1H localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy and comparison with computed tomography. Invest Radiol 1993;28(4):297-302. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  64. Egan BM, Lu G, Greene EL. Vascular effects of non-esterified fatty acids: implications for the cardiovascular risk factor cluster. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999;60(5-6):411-20. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  65. Safar ME, Czernichow S, Blacher J. Obesity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular risk. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17(4 Suppl 2):S109-11. doi:10.1681/ASN.2005121321 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  66. Wohlfahrt P, Somers VK, Cifkova R, Filipovsky J, Seidlerova J, Krajcoviechova A, Sochor O, Kullo IJ, Lopez-Jimenez F. Relationship between measures of central and general adiposity with aortic stiffness in the general population. Atherosclerosis 2014;235(2):625-31. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.05.958 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  67. Strasser B, Arvandi M, Pasha EP, Haley AP, Stanforth P, Tanaka H. Abdominal obesity is associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged adults. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2015;25(5):495-502. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2015.01.002 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  68. Arner P, Backdahl J, Hemmingsson P, Stenvinkel P, Eriksson-Hogling D, Naslund E, Thorell A, Andersson DP, Caidahl K, Ryden M. Regional variations in the relationship between arterial stiffness and adipocyte volume or number in obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond) 2015;39(2):222-7. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.118 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  69. Koumaras C, Tzimou M, Stavrinou E, Griva T, Gossios T, Katsiki N, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP, Karagiannis A. Role of antihypertensive drugs in arterial "de-stiffening" and central pulsatile hemodynamics. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2012;12(3):143-56. doi:10.2165/11599040-000000000-00000 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  70. Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kizer JR, Devereux RB, Kizer JR, Lee ET, Galloway JM, Ali T, Umans JG, Howard BV. Central pressure more strongly relates to vascular disease and outcome than does brachial pressure: the Strong Heart Study. Hypertension 2007;50(1):197-203. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.089078 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  71. Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R, Gautier I, Laloux B, Guize L, Ducimetiere P, Benetos A.. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2001;37(5):1236-41. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  72. Boutouyrie P, Tropeano AI, Asmar R, Gautier I, Benetos A, Lacolley P, Laurent S. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in hypertensive patients: a longitudinal study. Hypertension 2002;39(1):10-5. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  73. Wilkinson I, Cockcroft JR. Cholesterol, lipids and arterial stiffness. Adv Cardiol 2007;44:261-77. doi:10.1159/000096747 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  74. Wang X, Ye P, Cao R, Yang X, Xiao W, Thang Y, Bai Y, Wu H. Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study. Lipids Health Dis 2016;15(1):97. doi:10.1186/s12944-016-0266-8 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  75. Villela-Nogueira CA, Leite NC, Cardoso CRL, Salles GF. NAFLD and increased aortic stiffness: Parallel or common physiopathological mechanisms? Int J Mol Sci 2016;17(4). doi:10.3390/ijms17040460 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  76. Ferguson JM, Minas J, Siapantas S, Komesaroff PA, Sudhir K. Effects of a fixed-dose ACE inhibitor-diuretic combination on ambulatory blood pressure and arterial properties in isolated systolic hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2008;51(6):590-5. doi:10.1097/FJC.0b013e31817a8316 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  77. Schneider MP, Delles C, Klingbeil AU, Ludwig M, Kolloch RE, Krekler M, Stumpe KO, Schmieder RE. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on central haemodynamics in essential hypertension: results of a randomised trial. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2008;9(1):49-56. doi:10.3317/jraas.2008.003 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  78. Ohira M, Endo K, Oyama T, Yamaguchi T, Ban N, Kawana H, Nagayama D, Nagumo A, Saiki A, Murano T, Watanabe H, Miyashita Y, Shirai K. Improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia and arterial stiffness upon switching from premixed human insulin 30/70 to biphasic insulin aspart 30/70. Metabolism 2011;60(1):78-85. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2010.06.001 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  79. Stakos DA, Schuster DP, Sparks EA, Wooley CF, Osei K, Boudoulas H. Long term cardiovascular effects of oral antidiabetic agents in non-diabetic patients with insulin resistance: double blind, prospective, randomised study. Heart 2005;91(5):589-94. doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.027722 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  80. Kiyici S, Ersoy C, Kaderli A, Fazlioglu M, Budak F, Duran C, Gul OO, Sigirli D, Baran I, Tuncel E, Erturk E, Imamoglu S. Effect of rosiglitazone, metformin and medical nutrition treatment on arterial stiffness, serum MMP-9 and MCP-1 levels in drug naive type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009;86(1):44-50. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2009.07.004 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  81. Shargorodsky M, Omelchenko E, Matas Z, Boaz M, Gavish D. Relation between augmentation index and adiponectin during one-year metformin treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatosis: effects beyond glucose lowering? Cardiovasc Diabetol 2012;11:61. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-61 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  82. Agarwal N, Rice SPL, Bolusani H, Luzio SD, Dunseath G, Ludgate M, Rees DA. Metformin reduces arterial stiffness and improves endothelial function in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95(2):722-30. doi:10.1210/jc.2009-1985 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  83. Harashima K, Hayashi J, Miwa T, Tsunoda T. Long-term pioglitazone therapy improves arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2009;58(6):739-45. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2008.09.015 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  84. Uzui H, Nakano A, Mitsuke Y, Geshi T, Sakata J, Sarazawa K, Morishita T, Satou T, Ishida K, Lee JD. Acarbose treatments improve arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Investig 2011;2(2):148-53. doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00079.x Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  85. Nagayama D, Saiki A, Endo K, Yamaguchi T, Ban N, Kawana H, Ohira M, Oyama T, Miyashita Y, Shirai K. Improvement of cardio-ankle vascular index by glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Clin Pract 2010;64(13):1796-801. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02399.x Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  86. Duvnjak L, Blaslov K. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors improve arterial stiffness, blood pressure, lipid profile and inflammation parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2016;8:26. doi:10.1186/s13098-016-0144-6 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  87. Zografou I, Sampanis C, Gkaliagkousi E, Iliadis F, Papageorgiou A, Doukelis P, Vogiatzis K, Douma S. Effect of vildagliptin on hsCRP and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hormones (Athens) 2015;14(1):118-25. doi:10.14310/horm.2002.1512 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  88. Forst T, Michelson G, Ratter F, Weber MM, Anders S, Mitry M, Wilhelm B, Pfützner A. Addition of liraglutide in patients with Type 2 diabetes well controlled on metformin monotherapy improves several markers of vascular function. Diabet Med 2012;29(9):1115-8 doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03589.x Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  89. Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sodium-glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitors: A Review of the Clinical Evidence. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health 2015 Nov 5.
  90. Chilton R, Tikkanen I, Cannon CP, Crowe S, Woerle HJ, Broedl UC, Johansen OE. Effects of empagliflozin on blood pressure and markers of arterial stiffness and vascular resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2015;17(12):1180-93. doi:10.1111/dom.12572 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  91. Inzucchi SE, Zinman B, Wanner C, Ferrari R, Fitchett D, Hantel S, Espadero RM, Woerle HJ, Broedl UC, Johansen OE. SGLT-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular risk: proposed pathways and review of ongoing outcome trials. Diabetes Vasc Dis Res 2015;12(2):90-100. doi:10.1177/1479164114559852 Go to original source...
  92. Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kizer JR, Okin PM, Lee ET, Wang W, Umans JG, Calhoun D, Howard BV. High central pulse pressure is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome the strong heart study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54(18):1730-4. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.05.070 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  93. Wilkinson IB, Hall IR, MacCallum H, Mackenzie IS, McEniery CM, van der Arend BJ, Shu YE, MacKay LS, Webb DJ, Cockcroft JR. Pulse-wave analysis: clinical evaluation of a noninvasive, widely applicable method for assessing endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002;22(1):147-52. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  94. Boutouyrie P, Lacolley P, Briet M, Regnault V, Stanton A, Laurent S, Mahmud A. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness. Drugs 2011;71(13):1689-701. doi:10.2165/11593790-000000000-00000 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  95. Williams B, Lacy PS, Thom SM, Cruickshank K, Stanton A, Collier D, Hughes AD, Thurston H, O'Rourke M; CAFE Investigators; Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial Investigators; CAFE Steering Committee and Writing Committee. Differential impact of blood pressure-lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation 2006;113(9):1213-25. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.595496 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  96. Oliver JJ, Webb DJ. Noninvasive Assessment of Arterial Stiffness and Risk of Atherosclerotic Events. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23(4):554-66. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...