Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. X:X | 10.5507/bp.2018.015
Obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, where macrophages play an important role. Adipose tissue macrophages can be divided into two main phenotypes: the classical M1 macrophages and alternatively activated macrophages M2. M1 macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, interleukin IL-6 and MCP-1) and thus contribute to the development of insulin resistance. On the other hand, M2 macrophages, anti-inflammatory, are involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and are typical in the adipose tissue of slender individuals. Macrophages can also play a role in the pathogenesis of other serious illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases or cancer. This article reviews the latest data on macrophage polarization in adipose tissue.
Received: December 12, 2017; Accepted: March 27, 2018; Prepublished online: May 16, 2018