Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. X:X | 10.5507/bp.2014.027
Backround. The use of artificial vascular grafts (arteriovenous graft, AVG) is indicated in patients in hemodialysis programs if the subcutaneous venous bed is exhausted or unsuitable for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation. The native fistula should be the hemodialysis access of first choice: AVF has better results in terms of function and potential complications. However, the use of AVG is necessary in some patients. In these patients, extensive clinical examination, color duplex sonography and angiography should be performed prior to indication. The technique of graft implantation requires respect for geometric relations for the graft anastomoses to minimize the formation of intimal hyperplasia mainly on the venous anastomosis. The main complications of AVG are stenosis on the venous anastomosis (VAG), causing closure of graft and graft infection. The cumulative function of AVG is 59-90% in the first year and 50-82% in the second year. Arteriovenous graft stenosis leading to thrombosis is a major cause of complications in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the diagnostics and treatment of graft thrombosis and discuss the issue in combination with relevant publications via Pubmed database.
Conclusion: The most frequent cause of failure of AVG for hemodialysis is stenosis and closure by VAG. AVG closure can be addressed surgically, endovascularly (amenable to thrombectomy by radiological or surgical means) and by hybrid performance.
Received: September 23, 2013; Accepted: May 21, 2014; Published: June 23, 2014