Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(4):578-582 | 10.5507/bp.2016.045
Background: Bladder cancer is relatively common in adults. In children, it is extremely rare and in the majority of cases, low grade, low stage urothelial cancers are found.
Case report: We describe the diagnostic, therapeutic, and follow-up management of bladder cancer in a 3-year-old boy examined for painless hematuria. Transurethral resection of the tumor was performed and T1 high grade urothelial cancer with osseous metaplasia was found in definitive specimens. During the 2-year follow-up, there has been no recurrence. Typical characteristics of the most prevalent bladder tumors are presented.
Conclusion: Despite its low incidence and low prevalence bladder cancer in children is a very serious condition which must not be missed in the differential diagnosis of hematuria or urinary tract infection. It is vital to differentiate urothelial cancer from hamartoma and nephrogenic adenoma and, particularly in osseous metaplasia, from sarcomatoid carcinoma. Especially in high-grade cancers, precise TUR of the tumor with a careful follow-up is essential to detect cancer recurrence and reduce progression.
Received: June 25, 2016; Accepted: August 10, 2016; Prepublished online: October 3, 2016; Published: December 12, 2016