Biomedical papers, 2016 (vol. 160), issue 4

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(4):578-582 | 10.5507/bp.2016.045

High-grade urothelial bladder cancer in children: A case report and critical analysis of the literature

Milan Krala, Jaroslav Michalekb, Jozef Skardab, Tomas Tichyb, Oldrich Smakala, Roman Kodetc, Vladimir Studenta
a Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic
b Department of Clinical and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic
c Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty Hospital Motol and 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic

Background: Bladder cancer is relatively common in adults. In children, it is extremely rare and in the majority of cases, low grade, low stage urothelial cancers are found.

Case report: We describe the diagnostic, therapeutic, and follow-up management of bladder cancer in a 3-year-old boy examined for painless hematuria. Transurethral resection of the tumor was performed and T1 high grade urothelial cancer with osseous metaplasia was found in definitive specimens. During the 2-year follow-up, there has been no recurrence. Typical characteristics of the most prevalent bladder tumors are presented.

Conclusion: Despite its low incidence and low prevalence bladder cancer in children is a very serious condition which must not be missed in the differential diagnosis of hematuria or urinary tract infection. It is vital to differentiate urothelial cancer from hamartoma and nephrogenic adenoma and, particularly in osseous metaplasia, from sarcomatoid carcinoma. Especially in high-grade cancers, precise TUR of the tumor with a careful follow-up is essential to detect cancer recurrence and reduce progression.

Keywords: bladder cancer, treatment, children, pathology

Received: June 25, 2016; Accepted: August 10, 2016; Prepublished online: October 3, 2016; Published: December 12, 2016


References

  1. Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65(2):87-108. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Parkin DM. The global burden of urinary bladder cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 2008;(218):12-20. Go to original source...
  3. Paner GP, Zehnder P, Amin AM, Husain AN, Desai MM. Urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder occurring in young adult and pediatric patients: a comprehensive review of literature with implications for patient management. Adv Anat Pathol 2011;18(1):79-89. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Colombel M, Soloway M, Akaza H, et al. Epidemiology, Staging, Grading and Risk Stratification of Bladder Cancer. European Urology Supplements 2008;7:618-26. Go to original source...
  5. Wan J, Grossman HB. Bladder carcinoma in patients aged 40 years or younger. Cancer 1989;64:178-81. Go to PubMed...
  6. Alanee S, Shukla AR. Bladder malignancies in children aged <18 years: results from the surveillance, epidemiology and end results database. BJU Int 2009;106:557-60. Go to PubMed...
  7. Lerena J, Krauel L, García-Aparicio L, Vallasciani S, Sunol M, Rodó J. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in children and adolescents: Six-case series and review of the literature. J Pediatr Urol 2010;6:481-5. Go to PubMed...
  8. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/EAU-Guidelines-Non-muscle-invasive-Bladder-Cancer-2015-v1.pdf
  9. Berrettini A, Castagnetti M, Salerno A, Nappo SG, Manzoni G, Rigamonti W, Caione P. Bladder urothelial neoplasms in pediatric age: experience at three tertiary centers. J Pediatr Urol 2015;11(1):26.e1-5. Go to PubMed...
  10. Javadpour N, Mostofi FK. Primary epithelial tumors of the bladder in the first two decades of life. J Urol 1969;101:706-10. Go to PubMed...
  11. Mege-Lechevallier F, Cherasse A, Ronze S, Colombel M, Scoazec JY. Transitional carcinoma of the ureter with osseous metaplasia of the stroma: a case report. 2007;27(1):43-6.
  12. Sathe PA, Ghodke RK, Kandalkar BM. Multifocal nephrogenic adenoma - a mimicker of malignancy. Indian J Pediatr 2012;79(12):1661-3 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. Ota T, Kawai K, Hattori K, Uchida K, Akaza H, Harada M. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder. Int J Urology 1999;6:211-4. Go to original source...
  14. Safaei A, Farzaneh MR, Amin Sharifi AR. Immunohistochemistery Study in a Case of Nephrogenic Adenoma of Bladder. Iran J Med Sci 2012;37(2):137-40. Go to PubMed...
  15. www.pathologyotlines.com/bladder