Biomedical papers, 2016 (vol. 160), issue 4

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(4):461-466 | 10.5507/bp.2016.052

Nutrition, oxidative stress and intestinal dysbiosis: Influence of diet on gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases

Giovanni Tomaselloa,b,c,e, Margherita Mazzolaa, Angelo Leonei, Emanuele Sinagrad,e, Giovanni Zummoa, Felicia Farinaa, Provvidenza Damianic, Francesco Cappelloa,e, Alice Gerges Geageaa,f, Abdo Jurjusf, Tarek Bou Assig, Massimiliano Messinah, Francesco Carinia,c
a Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Human Anatomy, (BIONEC), University of Palermo, Italy
b School of Medicine and Surgery - Hypathia Course, University of Palermo, Italy
c AOUP "P. Giaccone", School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Palermo, Italy
d Fondazione Istituto S. Raffaele - G. Giglio, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Cefalu, Italy
e Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Palermo, Italy
f Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut (AUB), Beirut, Lebanon
g Department of Laboratory Medicine, Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Jal Eddib, Lebanon
h Department of Radiologic Science, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Palermo, Italy
i Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Histology, (BIONEC), University of Palermo, Italy

Background: Microbiota refers to the population of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi) that inhabit the entire gastrointestinal tract, more particularly the colon whose role is to maintain the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and control the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota is called dysbiosis. Dysbiosis redisposes to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease and indeterminate colitis.

Methods: The purpose of this literature review is to elucidate the influence of diet on the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the healthy gut and the role of diet in the development of dysbiosis.

Conclusion: The "Western diet", in particular a low - fiber high fat/high carbohydrate diet is one factor that can lead to severe dysbiosis. In contrast, "mediterranean" and vegetarian diets that includes abundant fruits, vegetables, olive oil and oily fish are known for their anti-inflammatory effects and could prevent dysbiosis and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease.

Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, intestinal dysbiosis, gut microbiota, healthy diet

Received: May 12, 2016; Accepted: September 27, 2016; Prepublished online: October 26, 2016; Published: December 12, 2016


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