Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016, 160(1):76-83 | 10.5507/bp.2015.016
Background: Peripheral blood monocytes are key effectors of innate immunity. Dysfunction, changes in their counts or altered expression of cytokines and pattern-recognition receptors on monocytes may contribute to the development of the autoimmune type of diabetes mellitus (AD).
Aims: We aimed to analyze the counts and proportions of the two main subtypes of monocyte cells, CD14++ and CD14+, and to look for potential changes in the expression of toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) as well as cytokine prolactin (PRL) in adult-onset AD, including diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).
Methods: We examined 21 T1DM patients, 9 patients with LADA, 16 control patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 24 healthy individuals. All diabetic patients were diagnosed after the age of 18 years. Expression at the mRNA level was determined by quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry was used to ascertain membrane expression and cell counts.
Results: T1DM patients had fewer CD14++ (P < 0.01) and CD14+ (P < 0.0001) monocytes whereas T2DM subjects showed decreased counts of CD14+ monocytes compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). TLR2 protein expression was significantly increased in T1DM CD14+ monocytes compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05), while TLR4 expression in T1DM CD14++ cells was significantly lower (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of PRL mRNA expression in monocytes.
Conclusions: The observed changes in the proportions of both immune cell types and in the expression of functional pattern-recognition receptors on monocytes in the subjects examined may arise as a consequence of chronic inflammation that accompanies long-term diabetes.
Received: December 22, 2014; Accepted: April 1, 2015; Prepublished online: May 4, 2015; Published: March 30, 2016