Biomedical Papers, 2014 (vol. 158), issue 1

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2014, 158(1):117-123 | 10.5507/bp.2013.098

Severity of periodontal disease in adult patients with diabetes mellitus in relation to the type of diabetes

Alma Pranckevicienea, Jolanta Siudikienea, Rytas Ostrauskasb, Vita Machiulskienea
a Department of Dental and Oral Pathology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu 2, 50009-Kaunas, Lithuania
b Institute of Endocrinology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu 2, 50009-Kaunas, Lithuania

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between diabetes mellitus - related factors and periodontal parameters among adult patients with diabetes mellitus, with respect to type of diabetes.

Methods: Study participants were 179 randomly selected 18-62-year-aged patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 87 randomly selected 32-70-year-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic control of diabetes was determined by the values of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The periodontal status of all patients was evaluated by simplifying oral debris index (DI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Data analysis was performed with respect to patients' age, diabetes duration, metabolic control level, and diabetes type. Binary regression was used to test relationship of various parameters with CAL.

Results: All periodontal estimates were significantly higher among patients with type 2 diabetes. The periodontal disease was more severe in >45-year-aged participants and with DI-S>1. In patients with type 1 diabetes, the disease duration >12 years was negatively related to most periodontal parameters. No significant correlation between the periodontal estimates and HbA1c was observed in either group. The significant predictors of severe periodontal disease were type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.356), duration of disease (OR = 1.827), high BOP (OR = 3.343) and DI-S (OR = 2.958).

Conclusions: Severity of periodontal disease is related to diabetes type, being more pronounced in patients with type 2 diabetes patients than in patients with type 1 diabetes. Dental plaque seems to be the major contributing factor for all patients with progressive periodontitis.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, periodontitis

Received: October 22, 2013; Accepted: December 19, 2013; Published: January 27, 2014


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